Climate change represents a serious threat to global food security, not least because of its effects on soils. Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns can have a great impact on the organic matter and processes that take place in our soils, as well as the plants and crops that grow over them. In order to meet the related challenges of global food security and climate change, agriculture and land management practices must undergo fundamental transformations. Improved agriculture and soil conservation agriculture and agro-forestry, bring multiple benefits. They produce fertile soils that are rich in organic matter, keep soil surface vegetated, require fewer chemical inputs. These soils are also less susceptible to erosion and desertification, and will maintain vital ecosystem services such as the hydrological and nutrient cycles, which are essential to maintaining and increasing food production. In such a setting, the need for prudent management of land resources assumes mammoth importance in the changing climate.